Senin, 07 Mei 2012



A conditional sentence typically consists of an if-clause ( which presents a cnndition ) and a result clause.
A. Overview of basic verb forms used in conditional sentences
True in the present or future :
a) If I have enough time, I watch TV every evening.
b) If I have enough time, I will watch TV later on tonight.
Untrue in the present or future :
a) If I had enough time, I would watch TV now or later on.
Untrue in the past :
a) If I had had enough time, I would have watched TV yesterday.

B. True in the present or future
a) if I don’t eat breakfast, I always get hungry during class.
b) water freezes or will freeze if the temperature reaches 32°F/0°C.
c) if I don’t eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.
d) if it rains, we should stay home.
If it rains, I might decide to stay home.
If it rains, we can’t go. 
If it rains, we’re going to stay home.
e) if anyone calls, please take a message.
f) if anyone should call, please take a message.
Explanation :
In conditional sentence that express true, factual ideas in the present or future, the simple present ( not the simple future ) is used in if-clause.
The result clause has various possible verb forms. A Result clause verb can be :
1. the simple present, to express a habitual activity or situation, as in (a)
2. either the simple present or the simple future, to express an established, predictable fact or general truth, as in (b)
3. the simple future, to express a particular activity or situation in the future, as in (c)
4. modals and phrasal modal such as should, might, can, be going to, as in (d)
5. an imperative verb, as in (c)
Sometimes should is used in an if-clause. It indicates a little more uncertainty  than the use of the simple present, but basically the meaning of examples (e) and (f) is the same.

C. Untrue ( contrary to fact ) in the present or future
a) if I though this class, I wouldn’t give tests.
b) if he were here right now, he would help us.
c) if I were you, I would accept their invitation.
d) if I had enough money, I would buy a car.
e) if I had enough money, I could buy a car.
Explanation :
In (a) : In truth, I don’t teach this class.
In (b) : in truth, he is not here right now.
In (c) : in truth, I am not you.
Note : were is used for both singular and plural subjects. Was ( with I, he, she, it ) sometimes used in formal speech : if I was you, I’d accept their invitation.
In (d) : the speaker wants a car, but doesn’t have enough money. Would expressed desired or predictable results.
In (e) : the speaker is expressing one possible results. Could=would be able to. Could expresses possible options.

D. Untrue ( contrary to fact ) in the past
a) if you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.
b) if they had studied, they would have passed the exam.
c) if I hadn’t slipped on the stairs, I wouldn’t have broken my arm.
d) if I had had enough money, I would have bought a  car.
e) if I had had enough money, I could have bought a car.
Explanation :
In (a) : in truth, you did not tell me about it.
In (b) : in truth, they did not study, therefore, they failed the exam.
In (c) : in truth, I slipped on the stairs. I broke my arm.
Note : the auxiliary verbs are almost always contracted in speech. “ if you’d told me, I would’ve helped you or I’d have helped you.
In (d) : would expresses a desired or predictable result.
In (e) : could expresses a possible option ; could have bought=would have been able to buy.

E. Using progressive verb forms in conditional sentences
a) True : it is raining right now, so I will not go for a walk.
b) Conditional : if it were not raining right now, I would go for a walk.
c) True : I am nothing living in Chile, I am not working at a bank.
d) Conditional : if I were living in Chile, I would be working at a bank.
e) True : it was raining yesterday afternoon, so I did not go for a walk.
f) Conditional : if it had been raining, I would have gone for a walk.
g) True : I was not living in Chile last year, I was not working at a bank.
h) Conditional : if I had been living in Chile last year, I would have been working at a bank.

F. Using “ Mixed time “ in conditional sentence
Frequently the time in the if-clause and the time in the result clause are different : One clause may be in the present and the other in the past. Notice that past and present time are mixed in these sentences.
a) True : I did not eat breakfast several hours ago, so I am hungry now.
b) Conditional : I had eaten breakfast several hours ago, I would not be hungry now.
c) True : he is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday.
d) Conditional : if he were a good student, he would have studied for the test yesterday.

G. Omitting If
a) were I you, I wouldn’t do that.
b) had I known, I would have told you.
c) should anyone call, please take a message.

H. Implied conditions
a) I would have gone with you, but I had to study.
b) I never would have succeeded without your help.
c) she run ; otherwise, she would have missed her bus.
Explanation :
Often the if-clause is implied, not stated. Conditional verb are still used in the result clause. In (a) : the implied condition=if I hadn’t had to study. In (b) : the implied condition=if you hadn’t help me.
Conditional verb are frequently used following  otherwise. In (c) : the implied if-clause=if she had not run.

I. Using as if or as though
a) it looks like rain
b) it looks as if it is going to rain
c) it looks as though it is going to rain
d) it looks like it is going to rain ( informal )
e) he is not a child.
f) she did not take a shower with her cloth on.
g) he has meet her.
h) she will be here.
Explanation :
Notice in (a) : like is followed by a noun object, (b) and (c) : as if and as though are followed by a clause and (d) like is followed by a clause. Usually the idea following as if or as though is “ untrue “ in this case, verb usage is similar to that in conditional sentence.
J. Verb forms following wish
Wish is used when the speaker wants reality to be different, to be exactly opposite.

“ True “ statement
Verb form following wish
A wish about the future

a) she will not tell me.
b) he isn’t going to be here.
c) she can’t come tomorrow.

I wish ( that ) she would tell me.
I wish he were going to be here.
I wish she could come tomorrow.

A wish about the present
d) I don’t know French.
e) it is raining right now.
f) I can’t speak Japanese.
I wish I knew French.
I wish it weren’t raining right now.
I wish I could speak Japanese.
A wish about the past
g) John didn’t come.
h) Mary couldn’t come.
I wish John had come.
I wish Mary could have come.

K. Using would to make wishes about the future
a) it is raining. I wish it would stop. ( I want it to stop raining )
b) I’m expecting a call. I wish the phone would ( I want the phone to ring )
c) it’s going to be a good party. I wish you would come.
d) we are going to be late. I wish you would hurry.
Explanation :
Would is usually used to indicate that the speaker wants something to happen or someone other than the speaker to do something in the future in the future. The wish may or may not come true ( be realized ). In (c) and (d) : I wish you would…is often used to make request. 



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